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Hamlet Analysis Research and Essay: MLA 8


When formatting your Works Cited, remember T.A.D.I.

T: Times New Roman, 12 point font (the entire page)
A: Alphabetical order
D: Double spaced throughout
I: Indent after the first line.

MyBib is a citation manager that provides free citations for MLA, APA, and Chicago style.   Create a new Project, then Add a Citation.  Choose from website, book, journal, video, and more.   If citing a database article, click on More and then Write/Paste.  When you are ready to print your Works Cited or References page, click on Download Bibliography.  Click here for handout. Watch the video!

Template for MLA 8

Instructions for Citing in MLA 8

Use this template for ALL Citations. If the item is absent, leave it out:

1. Author.

2. “Title of article, photo, video, or chapter.”

3. Title of the website, magazine, or book,

4. Contributor,

5. Version numbers listed: ed. vol. or no.,

6. Publisher name,

7. Publication date,

8. Page numbers: p. or pp.

9. Title of database or other larger container,

10. Publisher of database or larger container,

11. URL or DOI (for databases if available).

12. Accessed day month year.

Parenthetical Citations

Please use a citation after all direct quotes and after paraphrased information. Use a signal phrase before direct quotes. 

Example: According to Simon Parker "Shakespeare continues to amaze us after centuries" (Parker).

Works with author and page numbers:
(Popoff 10).

Works with an author and no page numbers:

Works without an author or page number. Enter a shortened title in quotes:


Profile Photo
Jennifer Jourdain
Montachusett Regional Voc Tech School
1050 Westminster Street
Fitchburg, MA 01420
(978) 345-9200 x5125

Sample Works Cited

   Works Cited

Bentley, Evie. "Seasonal Affective Disorder." Psychology Review, Sept. 1999, p. 18. General OneFile, Accessed 27 Nov. 2018.

Bradbury, Ray. The Illustrated Man . Simon & Schuster, 2012.

“Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD).” Mayo Clinic, 25 Oct. 2016, Accessed 27 Nov. 2018.


MLA 8 Examples


Print Book by a Single Author:

Benson, Jackson J.  The True Adventures of John Steinbeck, Writer: a Biography. Viking, 1984.

Parenthetical citation: (Benson 203).

Print Book by two or more authors:

Gielgud, John, and John Miller. Acting Shakespeare. Scribner, 1992.

Parenthetical citation: (Gielgud and Miller 54).

Print Magazine Article:

LaRoe, Lisa M. "LaSalle's Last Voyage." National Geographic May 1997: 72-83.

Parenthetical citation: (LaRoe 82).

Print Encyclopedia:

"Adams, Abigail Smith." Notable American Women, 1607-1950. Vol.1. Belknap, 6-9.

Parenthetical citation: ("Adams, Abigail Smith" 9).

Personal Interview:

Slater, Barbara. "Interview with Mrs. Ross." Telephone interview. 13 Nov. 2009.

Parenthetical citation: (Slater).

Databases often provide the citation for you, but double-check for accuracy. If there is no author or date listed, leave it out.  The example “date of download” below is September 30, 2011.

Database Article (originally a book source):

Kordich, Catherine J.  Bloom's How to Write about John Steinbeck. Chelsea House, 2007. Bloom's Literary Reference Online.

Accessed 30 Sept. 2011.

Parenthetical citation: (Kordich).

Database Article (directly written for the database-no author):

 "Congo Republic." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 30 Sept. 2011. Accessed 30 Sept. 2011.

Parenthetical citation: ("Congo Republic").

Webpage with Author:

Landow, George P. "Wages and the Costs of Living." The Victorian Web: An Overview. 12 Dec. 2003. Accessed 30 Sept.


Parenthetical citation: (Landow).

Webpage with No Author, Month, or Day:

"In Search of Shakespeare." PBS. 2003. Accessed 30 Sept. 2011.

Parenthetical citation: (“In Search of Shakespeare”).

Image Found Online - If no artist or title listed, omit artist & describe work for a title:

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York.  The Artchive.

Accessed 30 Sept. 2011.

Parenthetical citation: (Klee).

Online Video Clip:

Skitzles Commercial. Dir. Brendokeelo. 3 Dec. 2007. Accessed 30 Sept. 2011.

Parenthetical citation: (“Skitzles Commercial”).

Crafting Parenthetical Citations and Signal Phrases

  • Parenthetical Citations refer to the source where you found the information.  Everything that comes before the citation is assumed to have come from that source.
  • They match sources in the Works Cited (MLA).
  • They go after direct quotations, paraphrases, and summaries.
  • They always go at the end of the sentence and the period goes after them.
  • These are also called "in-text" citations.
  • With a direct quote, the parenthetical citation goes between the end quote and the period.

Examples in MLA Style:

Paraphrase: Because children were usually baptised soon after birth, we celebrate Shakespeare's birthday as April 23, 1564 ("William Shakespeare").

Quotation: Shakespeare only mentions his wife once in his will, leaving her his "second best bed" ("William Shakespeare").

The parenthetical citations above relate to this citation from the Works Cited:

"William Shakespeare." Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 30 Sep. 2016. Accessed 27 Nov. 2016.

A "signal phrase" is used to introduce a quotation or paraphrased information. The following contains the signal phrase "According to." If the source material stated is from a database or the web and doesn't have page numbers, do not put anything in parenthesis afterwards.  If the source has page numbers, put the page number in parenthesis afterward the paraphrase.

Example:  According to Salisbury and Morris, the entertainment industry was created during the English Renaissance.


This is from the Works Cited:

Salisbury, Joyce and Lawrence Morris. "Theater in England: 15th and 16th Centuries." Daily Life through HistoryABC-CLIO, 2015. Accessed 27 Nov. 2016.