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Quotations

Firstly, do not overuse quotes or use really long quotations in your paperWhat it implies is that you are trying to pad your paper.  Teachers see right through this.  As a basic guideline, only up to 10% of all the text from your research paper should be quotations.  When you do use direct quotes, use them correctly.  You should introduce your quote with a signal phrase.   The signal phrase gives the quote some context and helps the flow of your paper.

Long Quotations

If the quotation is longer than three lines of text, you need to put the text in a freestanding block.  Do not use quotation marks.   Introduce your quote with a single sentence ending with a colon.  Then start the quote on a brand new line, with the entire quote indented one inch from the left margin for MLA style (½” for APA style).   

Keep the other rules about direct quotes as stated previously.  Use ellipses (…) to omit sentences or phrases – but make sure the block still makes sense!  Keep all lines double-spaced. 


What are Parenthetical Citations?

What are parenthetical citations?  Sometimes called “in-text citations,” parenthetical citations are the little one-or-two word indicators, put in parenthesis after every single quotation, paraphrase, or summary of information that you used in your paper.  You should be including these as you write your rough draft. 

The only time you do not use a parenthetical citation is for your own ideas and opinions, and anything considered "common knowledge."  An example of common knowledge is "George Washington was the first President of the United States."  This does not need a citation.  Use this rule of thumb.  If you knew it before you read it, it probably is common knowledge.   Ask your teacher if you’re not sure.  Here’s some more information about parenthetical citations:

·    Parenthetical citations refer to the source where you found the information.  The information that comes before the parenthetical citation is assumed to have come from that source.
·    They match the sources at the end of your paper in the Works Cited (MLA) or References page (APA).   They must be in both places.
·    They always go at the end of the sentence and the period goes at the end.
·    With a direct quotation, the parenthetical citation goes after the end quote and before the period.  Ex: “It ain’t over ‘til it’s over” (Berra).
·    Place parenthetical citations underneath all pictures, photos, graphics, and diagrams used in your papers and presentation materials.

Common Examples of Parenthetical Citations

Print work with one author:
MLA: (Smith 483).

APA: (Smith, 1984, p. 483).

Print work with two authors:
MLA: (Smith and Jones 72).

APA: (Smith & Jones, 1992, p. 72).

Print work with a group as author:

MLA: (President's Commission on Energy 315).

APA:  (President’s Commission on Energy, 2000, p. 315).

Print work with no author use title:
MLA: (Writer's Market 66).

APA: (Writer’s Market, 2013, p.66).

Websites with author (n.d. means no date, para means paragraph number):

MLA: (Morris).

APA: (Morris, n.d., para. 5).

Website with no author, use title:

MLA: (“Shakespeare’s Globe”).

APA: (“Shakespeare’s Globe,” 2003, para. 10).

Image (print and digital): Use artists name.  If no artist, use “title”:

MLA: (Michelangelo).

APA: (Michelangelo, 1504).

Classic poem: Use book number. page numbers.

MLA: (Homer 4. 2-15).

Classic verse play: Use act, scene, and line numbers.

MLA: (Shakespeare 1.1.179-186).

Citation from the Bible: Use book, chapter, and verse.
MLA: (Bible, Chron.21.8)

Example Box for MLA Style Quotations

Example Box for APA Style Quotations

Example Box for Long Quotations (APA Parenthetical)

Easybib Parenthetical Citation Maker

Our school subscription version of Easybib, has a parenthetical citation maker.   This does not work for database entries however, that have been pasted in.  But, it will work for website, books, or any item which has been entered into a form.  Notice in the example below the fourth choice.  Click on that link.

Example:

Below is what your Parenthetical Citation would look like for MLA and APA styles.  Notice also the style guide link which can help you if you have questions.

Quotations in the MLA Style

When using a signal phrase, you alter the parenthetical citation.  If you mention the author, you need only provide the page number in parenthesis (for print sources).  If the source doesn’t have a page number, like most websites, you don’t need a parenthetical citation if you mention the author or website in the signal phrase.  The exception to this rule is if you’re using more than one work from the same author, then you need to mention that work somehow, either in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation.  Yes, this is somewhat confusing.   If you are concerned, ask your teacher.

 

Quotations in the APA Style

When using a signal phrase, you alter the parenthetical citation.  After you mention the author, put the year of publication in parenthesis and the page number at the end (for print sources).  If the source doesn’t have a page number, like most websites, you need to mention the number of the paragraph that you found the information (abbreviated as “para.”) at the end.  The exception to this rule is if you’re using more than one work from the same author, then you need to mention that work somehow, either in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation.