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APA 7 Style

The General APA Style paper has three basic sections with Level 1 Headings (see box to the right under References):

Abstract (if required)
References Page

Level 2 Headings are used for organizational purposes.  Use these to separate your paper into parts. 
Use Level 3 Headings, etc. to further separate and organize.
Note: Your teacher may ask you to answer specific questions and apply your knowledge.  Use those as Level 2 Headings.
Case studies would use the General Style with a Level 2 Heading for Case Study.

The Literature Review in APA Style has all of the above sections and uses Level 2 Headings to categorize what you have read into topic areas.  For example, if you were to write a Literature Review about five articles you read, you would find commonalities between them and use those for your Level 2 Headings, not the article titles.

The Scientific Report in APA Style uses the General APA Level 1 Headings above AND the following Level 1:


Note: This is not exhaustive.  For example, you may also include an Appendix after the References page (Level 1 Heading) and a Literature Review (Level 2 Heading). See your teachers for details on how they would like to see you organize your work.

Changes from APA 6 to 7

Major Changes from APA 6 to 7

No more "Running Head" for student papers.

Changes in Title Page (see Sample).

"They" can be used as a singular pronoun.

Use more sensitive language to describe people or groups of people.

Use only ONE space after a period.

In-Text Citation: All sources with three authors or more are now attributed using the last name of the first author followed by “et al.”

In References: If you have one source, state as Reference.  Up to 20 authors should now be included in a reference list entry.  

Digital object identifiers (DOIs) and URLs are now both presented as hyperlinks for electronic sources. Do not include the word: DOI.

“Retrieved from” (preceding the URL) is now only used when a retrieval date is necessary.

The publisher location is no longer included for books.

The website name is included (unless it’s the same as the organization), and web page titles are italicized.

Font options now include Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucida Sans Unicode 10, Times New Roman 12, and Georgia 11.

Other Links

Parenthetical Citations

Please introduce your quotes and paraphrased information with a signal phrase.

Works with author and date and page numbers:
(Popoff, 2000, p.10).

Works with an author and date and no page numbers:
(Parker, 2011).

Works without an author or page number and no date:
(The Organization, n.d.).

For more options, go to Purdue Owl's APA website.


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Jennifer Jourdain
Montachusett Regional Voc Tech School
1050 Westminster Street
Fitchburg, MA 01420
(978) 345-9200 x5125

Sample References Page


ABC Science News. (2013, July 15). Broken tooth in dinosaur’s tail proves T-rex hunted live prey. Australian Broadcast Corporation.

Banks, C., & Cicero, E. (2017). The unnecessary suffering of the T-rex: More dental care is needed. Paleontologist Today, 22(7), 254–277.

Brinks, M. (2017). The heterodonty of Albertosaurus sarcophagus and Tyrannosaurus rex: biomechanical implications inferred through 3-D models. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 47(9), 1253+.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2020, April 13). Tyrannosaurus rex dentist : Occupational outlook handbook.

DinoDentist. (n.d.). Dinosaur World requires new fleet of professionals including a T-rex dentist. Dinosaur Dental Professional. Retrieved June 11, 2020, from

Dinosaur Dental Health. (n.d.). Retrieved June 11, 2020, from

Erickson, G. M., Kirk, S. D. V., Su, J., Levenston, M. E., Caler, W. E., & Carter, D. R. (2019). Bite-force estimation for Tyrannosaurus rex from tooth-marked bones. Nature, 382(6593), 706–708.

International Association of Dinosaur Dentists. (2020). Student loan debt for T-rex dentists. IADD.

Larson, P. L., & Carpenter, K. (2008). Tyrannosaurus rex, the tyrant king. Indiana University Press.

Simon, P. (Ed.). (2019). T-rex health and care throughout the years. Crown.

Simpson, R. L. (2019). Several T-rexes found unresponsive at Dinosaur World. Dinosaur Monthly, 16(4), 55.

Wilde, O. (2020). Annual salary for T-rex dentists. Paleontology Dental Association.

Use Login with your Google account. Make sure that you change the format to APA 7...  References are a separate page at the end. 


  • Page number must be on top right. Bold References (or Reference if only one) in center.
  • Alphabetize entries. Keep double spacing and use the same font as paper. 
  • No bullets or numbering. List every (and only) source(s) mentioned in the paper.
  • The (date) goes after the first entry. If there is no date, you must state (n.d.). 
  • Second lines are indented. First names and titles (ex. MD) are never listed. 
  • If there is more than one author, list all of them (up to 20).
  • If there is an editor(s) instead of an author, type (Ed.) (but not in in-text citation)
  • If there is no author, list the organization as author. If there is no author or organization, list the title first (rare - see example: Dinosaur Dental Health).
  • Only capitalize the following: First letter in title.  First letter of subtitle. Proper names such as authors, places,organizations, scientific names, businesses, titles.
  • Book titles, journal titles, and web page titles go in italics.  Only italicize one!
  • Cite websites as: Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of page. Website. URL
  • Cite websites with no author:  Organization. (Year, Month Day). Title of page. Website. URL.  If the Organization is the same as the Website, do not repeat.  Omit Website.
  • ONLY if there is no date (n.d.), state “Retrieved” and date you viewed it. 
  • If there is a DOI listed (scholarly journal), you must use that instead of a URL.
  • Make sure that all of your URLs and DOIs are hyperlinked.


APA 7 Headings

APA Style uses a headings system to separate and classify paper sections. Headings are used to help guide the reader through a document. The levels are organized by levels of subordination, and each section of the paper should start with the highest level of heading.

Level 1:
Centered, Boldface, Title Case Heading - Text starts a new paragraph.

Level 2:
Flush left, Boldface, Title Case Heading - Text starts a new paragraph.

Level 3:
Flush Left, Boldface Italic, Title Case Heading - Text starts a new paragraph.

Level 4:
     Indented, Boldface Title Case Heading. Ends with a Period. Paragraph text continues on the same line as the same paragraph.

Level 5:
     Indented, Boldface Italic, Title Case Heading. Ends with a Period. Paragraph text continues on the same line as the same paragraph.

Citing Images

Photographer, P. (Year of publication). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Source. URL          

O’Shea, P. (2010, August 29). Rescued hedgehog. [Photograph]. Flickr


If the photographer is not listed, the citation would read as thus:

Rescued hedgehog [Photograph]. (2010, August 29).

If the date was also not listed, the citation would read as thus:

Rescued hedgehog [Photograph]. (n.d.).

If there is no title for the photograph, describe in brackets. The citation would read as thus:

[Rescued hedgehog] [Photograph]. (n.d.).

If it's not a photograph, then describe exactly what type of image it is: digital image, cartoon, painting, drawing, etc.